Greatly astonished, the Franciscan bishop of Mexico, Fray Juan de Zumarraga, contemplates the fresh roses of Castille that sprinkle with colors the floor of his episcopal palace. Tears run down his cheeks as he recognizes the beautiful image that has just appeared on the rough cloth that Juan Diego has unfolded in his presence. It is Tuesday, December 12, 1531, scarcely ten years after the conquest of Mexico, and the Mother of God has come to the defeated Indians to "show and give" all her "love and compassion, help and defense, because I am your merciful mother." For four days the Virgin has told her wishes to Juan Diego, talking to him in nahualtl, his own tongue. When she identified herself, Mary used the word coatlallope, a compound noun made up of coatl, that is: serpent, the preposition a, and llope, to crush; in other words, she identified herself as "the one who crushes the serpent." Others reconstruct the name as Tlecuauhtlapcupeuh, which means: "The one who comes from the region of light as the Eagle of Fire." In any event, the nahualtl word sounded to the Spanish friars like Guadalupe, relating the Tepeyac apparition with the beloved title which the conquistadores venerated in the Basilica raised by King Alfonso XI in 1340. The Spanish image of "Guadalupe" is an ancient wood carving dressed in rich brocade cloaks that give it the triangular shape much favored at the time. She is very different from the Tepeyac painting, not only because of her Iberian-Byzantine features, but also because she carries the Child Jesus in her left arm and holds a royal scepter in her right hand, displaying a gold crown on her head. The Guadalupe of Cáceres, whose origin, according to legend, is placed about the sixth century, was found on the shore of the Guadalupe River (hidden river in Arabic) in the Villuercas mountain range, around 1326, after the Moors were driven out of that area. Four hundred years elapsed before western culture recognized with admiration that the image imprinted on the native cloth was truly a Mexica codex, a message from heaven loaded with symbols. Helen Behrens, a North American anthropologist, discovered in 1945 what the eyes of the Indians had "read" in the painting of the "Mother of the true God by whom one lives" in December of 1531. The image of Our Lady of Guadalupe remained stamped on a coarse cloth made from maguey fibers. It was on the ayate used by the Indians to carry things and not on the tilma which is usually of a finer cotton texture. The weft of the ayate is so simple and coarse that one can see through it easily, and the fiber of the maguey is such an unsuitable material that no painter would have chosen it to paint on. The face imprinted in the ayate is that of a young mestizo girl; an ethnic anticipation, since at that time there were no mestizos of that age in Mexico. Mary thus assumes the sorrows of thousands of children, the first of a new race, which at that time was rejected both by the Indians and by the conquerors. The Virgin is standing and her face leans delicately, somewhat reminiscent of the traditional "Immaculates." The blue star sprinkled cloak is the Tilma de Turquesa (turquoise tilma) used by the nobles that denoted the rank and importance of the bearer. Sun rays completely surround the Virgin of Guadalupe as if to indicate that she is their dawn. This young girl is a few months pregnant, as implied by the black bow at her waist, the slight protuberance below it, and the increased intensity of the sun rays at the waist. Her foot rests on a black moon (symbol of evil to the Mexica) and the angel, who supports her with a severe gesture, has his eagle wings unfolded. The Virgin of Guadalupe presented herself to her children as the "Mother of the Creator and Preserver of All the Universe," who comes to her people because she wishes to protect all of them, Indians and Spaniards, with the same motherly love. With the wonderful imprint on the ayate a new world was beginning, the dawn of the sixth sun that the Mexicans were awaiting.
Source: "Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico". University of Dayton. All About Mary. Latin American Titles of Mary (https://udayton.edu/imri/mary/l/latin-american-titles-of-mary.php#anchor14)